Furniture painting refers to the operation of coating a film with a series of decorative protective properties after various times of coloring and drying the furniture products with various modern paints (paints). This film can be said to be the outermost packaging of furniture products. The beautiful outerwear determines the appearance, color, quality, grade and value of the furniture products to a large extent, so painting is an important part of the furniture manufacturing process.
At present, in the domestic and international furniture market, solid wood furniture or solid wood leather (planed thin veneer made veneers, etc.) veneer furniture still accounts for a large proportion. Wood is a kind of sustainable natural material. Its warm texture, soft touch and natural texture rich in natural beauty make wood products inseparable from people's lives since ancient times. However, the structure of the wood is complicated, it is easy to absorb moisture and dehumidify, resulting in expansion and contraction deformation and perishable and porous. Therefore, for protection purposes, painting becomes a necessary means, and coating can impart more color and texture to the wood. Bringing the diversity of wood and its products to enrich people's lives and bring us a more comfortable environment.
In order to obtain high-quality coating effect and implement efficient coating engineering, firstly, the nature of the wood substrate should be fully understood, such as the hardness of the material, the size of the tube hole, the depth of the material, etc. After knowing the nature of the wood, it is possible to match the natural texture of the wood to achieve the desired coating effect by selecting the appropriate coating and painting engineering.
First, painting design
Painting design refers to the plan established for the purpose of painting. In addition to protecting the wooden substrate, the wood coating design also increases the aesthetics of the product. The evaluation of the aesthetic value of the furniture product is mainly judged by the human visual and tactile sensation, and is often subjectively perceived by the individual's taste and taste. The factors that influence, determine the texture, color, transparency, concentration, squat, wood grain, film texture, film feel, gloss, etc., and need to achieve a balance between each other, that is, must have some opposing feelings Blending, such as warm-cold, rough-smooth, moist-dry, light-weight, hard--soft, etc., to maximize the comfort of the consumer.
When a piece of furniture that has been assembled and assembled is placed in a shopping mall or a user's home, the overall final coating effect and quality are the combined results of all the steps in all the painting processes. Therefore, from the selection of colorants, primers, topcoats to specific coating operations techniques are important impact factors, the various considerations are as follows:
1. Coating selection: The following factors are often considered:
1) the type and nature of the wood;
2) the required film properties;
3) the beauty of the painted product;
4) the practicality of the coated product;
5) The price of the coated product.
2. Decide on the painting project:
1) coloring (related to hue, concentration, substrate, catheter treatment, film coloring, etc.);
2) Undercoating (related to pre- and post-processes such as material and coloring);
3) Middle coating (related to visible hole, closed hole, thin coating, thick coating, etc.);
4) Grinding (related to substrate grinding, coating grinding, sandpaper thickness, etc.);
5) Top coating (related to muscle application, gloss, hardness, texture, etc.).
3. Painting technology:
1) Grasping the variety, performance and curing mechanism of the coating;
2) Adjustment of coating and viscosity adjustment;
3) Adjustment and operation of painting equipment;
4) Setting and management of drying conditions;
5) Grinding methods and operating techniques;
6) Creation of a suitable construction environment (temperature and humidity, light dust removal, etc.).
Second, the analysis of the purpose of painting
Products that have been properly coated are often protected, aesthetically pleasing, and have a certain level of functionality.
1) Protection: The coated products should be durable, and the physical and chemical properties of the coating should be able to withstand the relevant national standards (such as adhesion, liquid resistance, heat resistance, impact resistance, temperature resistance, wear resistance and Gloss, etc.);
2) Aesthetic effect: The coated products are often subjected to the evaluation of people's emotions and feelings. According to the visual and tactile sense, whether they are beautiful or not, whether there is transparency, calmness, moist feeling, touch feeling, comfort, noble feeling, luxury feeling and many more;
3) Giving function: Some furniture is specially required to have certain functions when it is coated, such as identification, identification, conductivity, insulation, lubrication, fire prevention, anti-slip, anti-static, anti-fog, anti-condensation, flame resistance, mildew proof, anti-proof Ants, insects, insecticides, temperature, silence, antibacterial, etc.
Third, the film and the texture of the coating
1) Oil painting (oil coating): The popular selection of easy-to-see coatings (mostly oil-based paints) in some Nordic countries is painted with solid wood furniture. After coating, it penetrates into the interior of the wood, and the surface of the wood has only a very thin film or almost There is no coating film, and at this time, the natural texture unique to the wood is most apparent, but since there is almost no film, the protective effect is poor, and the surface of the product is highly susceptible to contamination and damage.
2) Drilling hole decoration (opening hole coating): The film of the wood pipe hole is open and coated. The coating forms a thin coating film along the inner wall of the conduit hole. Generally, the hole is not filled with the hole filling agent during the coating process, so the surface tube hole after coating is exposed, thereby enhancing the natural texture of the wood.
3) Filling hole decoration (closed hole coating, mirror coating): During the painting process, it is necessary to fill and fill the wood conduit hole with the hole filling agent and the coating, and make a thick coating film, which is polished and polished. A mirror effect with full, thick highlights is available. Because thick coating will affect the appearance of wood texture.
4) Semi-Popular Coating: The intermediate type coating between the display hole and the closed hole decoration, that is, the hole filling agent is used to fill the hole properly during the coating process, and the surface is semi-open, and the surface is semi-open. The inner coating film of the hole is thicker than that of the opening, and the antifouling, moistureproof and waterproof effects are better. This method is conducive to the visualization of the wood muscle of each tree species.
Fourth, gloss and painting texture
1) The texture of all-light: represented by the mirror effect, the film is full and thick, and has a very high gloss due to the total reflection of light. The radiant surface is radiant, making the product look luxurious and elegant, fully showing the thick feeling of the film.
2) The texture of matting: due to the scattering of light, it gives a dull sense of calmness. Although there is a coating film, it has less heavy feeling. If it is coated, it shows a feeling of no painting. Generally, the head and second primer are not used in the coating process, but directly coated with a matte finish. After the coating is dried, it is ground and then painted with a matte finish.
3) Partial gloss texture: There are so-called 3 points, 5 points (half-light), 7-point light and other different proportions of gloss performance. Part of the gloss is formed by using different gloss top coats. Combined with different materials, colors, shapes of coated objects, and coating film thickness, it can form different decorative styles with different characteristics.
Fifth, the paint texture of each paint
At present, the wood lacquers commonly used at home and abroad have different coating textures.
1) Nitrocellulose lacquer (NC):
Also known as nitrocellulose lacquer, lacquer, the main film-forming material is nitrocellulose, which is mostly made from cotton by nitrification of nitric acid, chemically known as nitrocellulose ester. The nitrocellulose and other synthetic resins (such as alkyd resin, rosin resin, etc.) are dissolved in a mixed solvent of ester, ketone, alcohol, benzene, etc. to form a lacquer, which is applied to the surface of the wood, and the film is formed by evaporation of the solvent. . Because wood fiber contains cellulose and is similar in structure to nitrocellulose (cotton fiber), the compatibility of nitrocellulose with wood is excellent. Even if it is coated many times, it can still reveal the woody feeling of the material. In other words, it can be unique to wood. The warmth of the original original wood paint. Before the 1980s, nitrocellulose lacquer was the most important lacquer for wood coating in China, but its comprehensive performance was inferior to that of polyurethane lacquer later, so it has been given to polyurethane lacquer. However, Americans prefer nitrocellulose lacquer. Most of the American interior furniture still uses nitrocellulose lacquer. Therefore, almost all the furniture exported to the United States in recent years adopts the so-called American painting process, and the bottom lacquer is mostly made of nitro. Japan's hand-made furniture and Taiwan's furniture coating nitro still account for a large proportion.
2) Polyurethane paint (PU):
The abbreviation of polyurethane paint (often referred to as polyester paint) means that the film formed is a polyurethane resin. At present, most of the furniture in China's market is coated with polyurethane paint (PU), most of which are two-component (two-liquid) PU paint. In recent years, a small amount of single-component PU has also appeared. The paint has excellent physical and chemical properties (adhesiveness, fullness, transparency, flexibility, chemical resistance, etc.), and it has a slightly yellowish variety and a yellowish variety. The purchased two-component PU has two packages, which are packaged at the time of storage, and the two components of the surface of the furniture are chemically reacted to form a film. The thin layer of PU film still retains part of the wood texture, and the thick film shows that the wood texture is less effective than NC.
3) Unsaturated polyester paint (PE):
Referred to as polyester paint, it is a coating material with unsaturated polyester resin as the main film-forming material. It is also a multi-component paint (usually 2-3 components), which has excellent comprehensive physical and chemical properties. Another unique feature is that the solvent used in the paint is also an unsaturated material, which can dissolve unsaturated polyester as solvent, under certain conditions (with the participation of initiator and accelerator) and unsaturated polymerization. The ester is copolymerized and cross-linked to form a film, so that the solid content of the paint is as high as 100%. Therefore, PE is often referred to as a solvent-free paint, which can be thick film at one time, and the fullness of the coating film is extremely high.
4) Photosensitive paint (UV):
Also known as UV-curable coatings, that is, the coating must be dried in a few seconds under ultraviolet light. It is the fastest drying lacquer in wood lacquer. In the composition of the paint, the resin type can be freely selected, and paint films of various hardnesses such as 2H, 5H, and 8H can be obtained. The paint has excellent overall performance and is also a solvent-free paint. The thin coating still retains a little woody feel, while the thick coating affects the woody feel. Due to the characteristics of rapid drying and drying under ultraviolet light, it is currently used for floor and panel furniture finishing of flat surface panels, which can organize a continuous coating line with a high degree of mechanization automation, greatly improving the efficiency of painting engineering and shortening the coating. Install the construction period and reduce the land occupation. It is a development direction of modern wood painting!
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